Information about Canada
Knight's Canadian Info Collection


Canada Facts

Canada and Flag

The following are the capital cities of the 10 Provinces (from West to East) and the 3 Territories:-
British Columbia (Victoria); Alberta (Edmonton); Saskatchewan (Regina); Manitoba (Winnipeg); Ontario (Toronto); Québec (Québec City); New Brunswick (Fredericton); Nova Scotia (Halifax); Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown); Newfoundland and Labrador (St. John's); Yukon Territory (Whitehorse); Northwest Territory (Yellowknife); and Nunavut Territory (Iqaluit).

To find out How Canada's Provinces and Capital Cities Got Their Names


Northern-most town - Grise Fiord on Ellesmere Island (NT).

Southern-most point - Middle Island, Lake Erie (ON).

Southern-most town - Pelee Island (ON).

Western-most point - The Yukon/Alaska border on the Pacific Coast.

Western-most town - Beaver Creek (YT).

Eastern-most point in North America - Cape Spear (NF).

Eastern-most town - Blackhead (St. John's district)(NF).

Exact Centre of Canada - Arviat, Nunavut is in the exact centre of Canada (measured North, South, East and West)

SOME MORE "......est" FACTS

The longest running weekly show on TV was the CBC program Front Page Challenge. It ran for 38 years (1957-1995).

The oldest program in Canadian broadcasting history is Hockey Night In Canada. It first was on the radio in 1931, and in the Fall of 1952 the first TV hockey game was broadcast nationally on CBC. It is still being produced weekly in both English and French by the CBC.

The oldest newspaper in Canada began publication in 1752 as the Halifax Gazette. The first issue is dated March 23rd, 1752.

Highest waterfall in Canada - Della Falls, located in Strathcona Provincial Park, on Vancouver Island, BC. It has a 440 meter vertical drop, and is one of the 10 highest waterfalls in the world..

Tallest building in Canada - First Canadian Place, Toronto, ON at 290 meters.

Highest dam in Canada - Mica Dam, Columbia River, BC - 242 meters.

Deepest mine shaft in Canada is Macassa gold mine, Kirkland Lake, Ontario - 2206 meters.

Lowest point on a public road in Canada - George Massey Tunnel under the Fraser River near the Vancouver International Airport. It is 20 meters below sea level

Highest town - Lake Louise (AB) at 1540 metres.

Rainest place - Ocean Falls (BC) 4145mm/ year.

Largest one-day Rainfall - on Oct 06, 1967 Ucluelet Brynnor Mines, BC recorded 489.2 mm (19.3 in) of rain.

Longest tunnel - Macdonald Railway Tunnel, Rogers Pass (BC) 14.5 km.

Coldest City - Yellowknife (NW) mean average temp. -5.4 C.

Coldest recorded temp. was -63C (-81.4F) at Snag, Yukon on Feb 3, 1947.

Warmest city - Vancouver (BC) mean average temp. +10.4 C.

Hottest temp. recorded was 45C (135F) at Midale & Yellowgrass (SK) on Jul 5, 1937.

Oldest city in North America is St. John's (NF) which was discovered by John Cabot in 1497.

Longest suspension bridge - The Pierre LaPorte Bridge, Quebec City (QC) 668 metres.

Canada's longest passenger train (October 1999) was over 1 kilometre long and consisted of 45 passenger cars. It travelled between Vancouver (BC) and Banff (AB).

Canada's greatest single disaster was the Halifax explosion of December 06, 1917. The French freighter Mont Blanc exploded after a collision and fire with the Dutch ship IMO. Death toll was 1,600 and over 9,000 were injured.

The biggest weather disaster in Canadian history was the Quebec Ice Storm of January 1998. It caused an estimated 2 billion dollars in damage and at one point had 4 million people without power in Ontario and Quebec.

Hurricane Hazel - Ontario got its first and only hurricane on October 15, 1954, when Hurricane Hazel roared north, leaving death and devastation in its wake. Hurricane Hazel turned the normally placid Humber River into a swollen torrent that claimed 36 victims.

In 1971, Hurricane Beth dropped 296 mm of rain on Halifax, Nova Scotia and washed out several highways and bridges in Nova Scotia.

Canada's Islands

Largest Islands of Canadian Provinces


Province or territory




square kms

square miles


Big Island (Peace River)



British Columbia

Vancouver Island




Ross Island

c. 1,500

c. 600

New Brunswick




Newfoundland and Labrador




Northwest Territories

Banks Island



Nova Scotia

Cape Breton Island




Baffin Island




Manitoulin Island



Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward I.








Malcolm Island (Reindeer Lake)




Herschel Island



Note: The above chart compiled by: World Island Info
and used with permission

Canada's Lakes

There are over two million lakes in Canada, covering about 7.6 percent of the Canadian landmass. The main lakes, in order of the surface area located in Canada (many large lakes share the Canada-U.S. border), are Huron, Great Bear, Superior, Great Slave, Winnipeg, Erie and Ontario.

The largest lake situated entirely in Canada is Great Bear Lake (31 328 km2) in the Northwest Territories. The deepest lake is Great Slave Lake, N.W.T., 615 metres. See below for additional information on these 2 lakes

The Great Lakes - Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario - are the largest group of freshwater lakes in the world. They have a total surface area of 245,000 square kilometres, of which about one third is in Canada; only Lake Michigan is entirely within the USA.

Ontario is the only province, state, or territory that borders all 4 Great Lakes that touch Canada.

The largest lake in the world to drain naturally in two directions is Wollaston Lake in Saskatchewan, 2,681 square kilometres. It flows north into the Mackenzie River basin and east into Hudson Bay.

The world's largest lake inside a lake, Manitou Lake, is located on the world's largest lake island, Manitoulin Island, which is located on Lake Huron. Manitoulin Island covers 2,765 square kilometres. The largest island in Canada is Baffin Island, Nunavut., 507,451 square kilometres.

Canada's Rivers

Rivers in Canada flow into five major ocean drainage basins: the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic oceans, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. The drainage basin areas are separated by a drainage divide or height of land. The river system with the largest drainage area is the Mackenzie River, with 1,805,200 square kilometres = one-fifth of Canada.

The St. Lawrence (3,058 kilometres long) is Canada's most important river, providing a seaway for ships from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. The longest Canadian river is the Mackenzie, which flows 4,241 kilometres through the Northwest Territories. Other large watercourses include the Yukon and the Columbia (parts of which flow through U.S. territory), the Nelson, the Churchill, and the Fraser - along with major tributaries such as the Saskatchewan, the Peace, the Ottawa, the Athabasca and the Liard.

Largest Rivers

(To convert km to miles, multiply by .6)
(The Mackenzie River @ 4241 km x .6 = 2545 miles long)

Mackenzie- 4241 km
Yukon - 3185 km
St. Lawrence - 3058 km
Nelson - 2575 km
Columbia - 2000 km
Saskatchewan - 1939 km
Peace - 1923 km
Churchill - 1609 km
South Skatchewan - 1392 km
Fraser - 1370 km
North Saskatchewan - 1287 kkm
Ottawa - 1271 km
Athabasca - 1231 km
Liard - 1115 km
Assiniboine - 1070 km


(Excluding the Great Lakes)
Lake Principal Location Area km2
Great Bear Lake Northwest Territory 31,328
Great Slave Lake Northwest Territory 28,568
Lake Winnipeg Manitoba 24,387
Lake Athabasca Saskatchewan 7,935
Reindeer Lake Saskatchewan 6,650


Great Bear Lake is the largest lake in Canada and the fourth largest in the Americas. Only Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan are larger. Great Bear Lake covers 12,096 square miles (31,328 square kilometers) in the Northwest Territories. The lake spreads across parts of two of Canada's major land regions, the Canadian Shield and the northern Interior Plains. Part of the lake also lies within the Arctic Circle. Ice covers the lake for about three-fourths of the year. The lake's Dease Arm and McTavish Arm extend north into the tundra, which is a dry, cold, treeless region. Forests of small trees line the shores of the rest of Great Bear Lake. The Great Bear River drains the lake into the Mackenzie River and becomes part of Canada's longest navigable river system.

Great Bear Lake contains many fish, including trout, whitefish, and northern pike. The region around the lake has abundant wildlife. Residents from Fort Franklin, on the southwest side of the lake, trap many animals for the fur market. The lake probably got its name because of its size and because of the bears that lived on its shores.

From the 1930's to 1960, large quantities of pitchblende were mined near Echo Bay on the east side of the lake. Uranium taken from pitchblende that was mined in this area helped make atomic bombs used in 1945 during World War II.


Great Slave Lake is one of the largest lakes in the Americas. It covers 11,030 square miles (28,568 square kilometers) in Canada's Northwest Territories. It ranks second behind Great Bear Lake among the largest lakes lying entirely within Canada. Great Slave Lake is fed chiefly by the Slave River, which combines the waters of the Peace and Athabasca systems. Its outlet forms the beginning of the great Mackenzie River.

Yellowknife, the capital and largest city of the Northwest Territories, and several small settlements lie on or near the lake's shores. Yellowknife is a gold-mining center. Commercial fishing in the lake and good timber on the southern shore provide other sources of income in the area. Great Slave Lake is famous for severe and unpredictable storms. Ice covers Great Slave Lake eight months a year.

In 1771, the English explorer Samuel Hearne became the first white person to reach the lake. Fur trading developed in the area. Several fur-trading posts were established, and later became permanent settlements. The lake was named for the Slavey Indians, who lived in the area.

(Source:- G. Peter Kershaw, G. Peter Kershaw, "Great Bear Lake,", " Great Slave Lake", Discovery Channel School, original content provided by World Book Online)

(lakes with an area of 3 sq kilometres or larger)
Region Lakes 3 km2 to 100 km2 All others above 100 km2 Total
Atlantic Provinces 1,761 31 1,792
Quebec 8,182 93 8,275
Ontario 3,837 62 3,899
Prairie Provinces 5,245 137 5,382
British Columbia 838 23 861
Yukon, NWT & Nunavut 11,328 217 11,545
All of Canada 31,191 563 31,754
(Source: Statistics Canada)

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