Knight's Canadian Info Collection

PRESENTS

All About Canada

Page 2

Canada's National Flag

Non Nobis Sed Patriae

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PARKS AND WILDLIFE
Canada commemorates persons and events for their national historic significance as well as places. So far, over 1500 places, persons and events have been commemorated by the Government of Canada

There are 40 National Parks and over 150 National Historic Sites in Canada. Additional National Parks are planned for the coming years. At present, there are 2 National Marine Conservation Areas of Canada, with more planned for future designation.

In the summer of 1999 Canada added another 80,000 sq.km. to the National Park system when it established 3 new parks in Nunavut Territory. These parks are described as "northern gems" and are named Surmilik, Auyuittuq and Quttinirtaaq. The Inuktitut names chosen for the parks illustrate the frozen terrain's major features: "place of glaciers," "land that never melts" and "top of the world"."

There are 21 wildlife refuges and wild bird sanctuaries in all parts of Canada.

Canada is home to an estimated 140,000+ native species.

Provincial Parks number 1400+, with more added each year.

The smallest park is the St. Lawrence Island Park, ON at 40 hectares.

Canada's oldest park is historic Banff National Park, AB in the Canadain Rockies.

Clayquot Sound, in the Pacific Rim National Park, BC has been declared a United Nations Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO.

MOUNTAINS, LAKES AND RIVERS
Mountain Ranges include: Torngats, Appalachians, Laurentians, Rockies, Costal, Mackenzie, St. Elias and the Pelly Mountains.

At 5,959 metres (19,550 ft), Mount Logan is Canada's tallest peak. Mt. Logan is the highest point in Canada and second in North America only to Mount McKinley. Located in the St. Elias Mountains of southwestern Yukon Territory, the peak towers about 4,300 m (14,000 ft) above the Seward Glacier at the Alaska border to the south and is a focal point of Kluane National Park, a 22,000-sq-km (8,500-sq-mi) rugged wilderness. The actual ridge crest of the mountain is about 16 km (10 mi) across, while the entire mass is more than 32 km (20 mi) long.

The longest river is the Mackenzie River flowing 4,241 km. through the Northwest Territories.

There are 20 heritage rivers in Canada.

The deepest lake in Canada is Great Slave Lake, NW which has a depth of 614 metres.

Great Bear Lake is the largest fresh water lake entirely within Canada, with an area of 31,326 sq.km.

Four of the five Great Lakes straddle the U.S.-Canada border; the fifth, Lake Michigan, is entirely within the United States

The largest of the Great Lakes is Superior, ON with an in-Canada area of 127,700 sq.km (49,305 sq mi).

The highest lake in Canada is Chico Lake, BC at 1,171 metres.

Della Falls is the highest waterfall in Canada and tenth highest in the world. It is situated close to the southern boundary of Strathcona Provincial park on Vancouver Island. Water flows from Della Lake into Della falls and it has a 440 m. (1,440 ft.) drop on Drink Water Creek to Great Central Lake.

The Greatest waterfall by volume is Niagara Falls, ON - the Canadian Horseshoe Falls dumps 5,365 sq. metres per second into the Niagara river.

The largest island is Baffin Island, NT. It has an area of 507,452 sq.km.

TIME ZONES
Canada encompasses six time zones. In Newfoundland the time zone is 3 hours + 30 minutes behind Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The other time zones are in even-hours behind GMT, from East to West. The Pacific region is 8 hours behind GMT.
Note: In Canada, Time Zones and Daylight Saving Time are usually regulated by provincial and territorial governments.

Canada's Time Zones
Map is from National Research Council Canada

THE CANADIAN ARMED FORCES
There are about 67,000 active and 26,000 Canadian Forces reservists in Canada.
The Canadian Armed Forces comprise Land Forces Command (ARMY), Maritime Command East and West(NAVY), Air Command (AIRFORCE) in addition to Communications Command and Training Command. They were integrated in 1967 (although each branch again has its own distinctive uniform and badges) and is a voluntary service.
Canadian Forces members have served with distinction in World Wars I and II, the Korean War, Viet Nam, the Gulf War, Somalia, Yugoslavia and several others.
Members of the Canadian army's anti-terrorist unit (JTF-2) and several thousand fighting troops and support units are assisting the world effort in the war on terrorism in Afghanistan.

ROYAL APPOINTMENT
In June 2011 on his 90th birthday, Canada named HRH Prince Phillip an Admiral in Maritime Command and a General in Land Forces Command and Air Command.

UNKNOWN SOLDIER RETURNS TO CANADA
Tomb of the Unknown SoldierCanada now has its own "Tomb of The Unknown Soldier," after the remains of a soldier killed in the battle of Vimy Ridge in France during the First World War were returned to Canada. The soldier was one of 27,000 Canadian soldiers killed in conflicts abroad whose remains could not be identified or were lost at sea. His remains were interred on May 28, 2000 at the National War Memorial in Ottawa, after a three-day vigil on Parliament Hill. The Royal Canadian Legion began the endeavour to bring the soldier home as a millennium project. They wanted to create a Canadian "Tomb of The Unknown Soldier" to pay tribute to those military and merchant navy members whose remains have not been recovered, or whose graves are marked with the words "Here lies a Canadian Soldier Known Only Unto God". Canada has pledged never to identify the remains using modern technologies such as DNA testing.

CANADA'S NATIONAL MILITARY CEMETERY
Canada's first National Military Cemetery of the Canadian Forces was dedicated in June 2001, by Governor General Adrienne Clarkson. Ottawa's Beechwood Cemetery, established in 1873, is already the resting place for numerous Canadian war heroes and dates back to the Northwest Rebellion (which took place in what is now Saskatchewan). The sprawling, rolling area set aside for Canada's military personnel, can still accommodate as many as 6,000 graves. The largest military cemetery is in Point Claire, QC, where 18,000 war veterans are buried. Other sites in Vancouver, BC and Winnipeg, MB also contain large numbers of war veterans. The Point Claire site, which is operated by the Last Post Fund, has recently been opened for Canadian Forces veterans, but only those who have served in special duty areas such (as Cyprus and Bosnia) can be buried there.
The National Military Cemetery will serve as a national focal point to demonstrate Canada's commitment to peace and security both internationally and at home. The Cemetery will honour the sacrifices made by all current and former Canadian Forces (Regular and Reserve) members who have been honourably discharged and any Peacekeepers and Canadian Veterans of the two World Wars and Korea (including Merchant Seaman). In addition, an immediate family member may also be interred in the same plot as the service members.

CANADA PEACEKEEPERS
Canada is well known for its peacekeeping role with the United Nations and NATO in many areas throughout the world. These include: the Golan Heights, Cyprus, Crotia, Haiti, Cambodia, Bosnia, Kosovo, East Timor, Afghanistan and several others. Armed forces members have served and are serving in every U.N. controlled location since 1956.

Sadly, more than 185 brave Canadians have lost their lives during Canadian Peacekeeping duties in various countries around the world. The names of all these Peacekeepers can be found on the followiing page on our site:
Canadian Peacekeeping Roll of Honour
Additional information about Canada's Peacekeeping Forces will also be found on that page.

CANADA AND THE UNITED NATIONS
Canada's Ambassador to the United Nations is Alan Rock

Canada is a full member of the United Nations General Assembly (joining the U.N. on Nov. 9th, 1945) and Canadian delegates serve on many U.N. committees, groups and organizations throughout the world.

On December 31st, 2000 Canada completed a two-year term as a member of the 15-seat United Nations Security Council.

The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights was developed and shaped (in part) by Canadian John Peters Humphrey.

Louise Arbour was appointed U.N Commissioner of Human Rights in July 2004. She served 16 years as a Justice, including several years on the bench of the Supreme Court of Canada.

CANADA IN SPACE
LogoCanada has sent astronauts into space as part of the U.S. space program on several Space Shuttle flights. Canada has its own astronaut training program (The Canadian Space Agency) and also trains with NASA.

To learn more about Canada's Astronauts, The Space Agency and what Canada is doing in space, click on the links in the left-frame or use the Site Map link at the end of this page.

THE CANADIAN SECURITY AND INTELLEGENCE SERVICE
CSIS CrestCSIS is a government agency that has a federal mandate to collect, analyze and retain information or intelligence on activities that may, on reasonable grounds, be suspected of constituting threats to the security of Canada and in relation thereto, report to and advise the Government of Canada. CSIS also provides security screening and assessments, on request, to all Federal Departments and Agencies (including Immigration and Citizenship), with the exception of the RCMP and the Department of National Defence. These threats to the security of Canada include: Espionage, Sabotage, Foreign Influences or Activities, Political Violence and Terrorism or Subversion.

HEALTH AND WELFARE
Canada has one of the world's highest living standards.

All Canadian have free access to a national health care system. Most people over 65 recieve their medical costs, hospital stays and all associated expenses at no cost.

Canada has an extensive social safety network with senior's pensions, monthly family allowances, unemployment insurance and a welfare system.

CITIZENSHIP OATH
The Canadian Citizenship Oath was introduced into leglislation by the Trudeau government in 1976 and came into effect in 1977.

The Canadian Citizenship Oath
English version
"I [name of person] swear" [or "affirm"] "that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Canada, Her Heirs and Successors, according to law and that I will faithfully observe the laws of Canada and fulfill my duties as a Canadian citizen".
La version française (French)
"Je jure" [ou "déclare solennellement"] "que je serai fidèle et que je porterai sincère allégeance à Sa Majesté la Reine Elizabeth Deux, Reine du Canada, à ses héritiers et à ses successeurs en conformité de la loi et que j'observerai fidèlement les lois du Canada et remplirai mes devoirs de citoyen canadien".

HONOURARY CANADIAN CITIZENSHIP
The sixth Honourary Citizenship was awarded to Malala Yousafzai women's rights and education activist and recipient of the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize.
In May 2010 Prime Minister Harper conferred Canada's fifth Honourary Canadian Citizenship on The Aga Kahn. Followers know him as Mawlana Hazar Imam.
In October 2007 the Prime Minister conferred Honourary Canadian Citizenship on Aung San Suu Kyi, the world-renowned advocate of freedom and democracy in Burma.
In 2006 Prime Minister Stephen Harper bestowed Honourary Canadian Citizenship on His Holiness The Delai Lama.
On November 19, 2001, Prime Minister Jean Chretien conferred an Honourary Canadian Citizenship on Nelson Mandela in recognition of Mandela's leadership in defeating apartheid in South Africa.
The first Honourary Canadian Citizen was Raoul Wallenberg, who was posthumously awarded Honourary Canadian Citizenship in 1985, for his efforts in saving thousands of Jewish people during WWII.

CANADA'S PARLIAMENTARY POET LAUREATE
Canada's fourth and the current Poet Laureate is Pierre DesRuisseaux. He was appointed in 2009. George Bowering was named Canada's first Poet Laureate (2002-2004) and Pauline Michel was the second (2004-2006). In November 2006 Canada's third Parliamentary Poet Laureate was named for the period 2006-2008. He is John Steffler of Montreal.

THE PEOPLES OF CANADA
The population of Canada as of July 2010 is estimated by Stats Canada at 33,476,688

The largest populated city in Canada is Toronto (ON) followed by Montreal (QC), Vancouver (BC), Ottawa-Gatineau (ON-QC), Calgary (AB) and Edmonton (AB).

Some of the ethnic groups (in no particular order) in Canada are: English, French, Scottish, Irish, German, Italian, Chinese, North American Indian, Ukrainian, Dutch, Polish, East Indian, Russian, Welsh, Filipino, Norwegian, Portuguese, Métis, Swedish, Spanish, Hungarian (Magyar), Jamaican, Danish.

76.6 per cent of Canadians live in cities and towns while 23.4 per cent live in rural/farm areas.

Over 31 per cent of the population live in the largest cities of Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.

The life expectancy of a Canadian woman is 84 years and a Canadian man is 76 years.

The size of the average family is 3.1 people (including 1.3 children).

THE ABORIGINAL POPULATION
There are over 550,000 status or non-status Aboriginal People and another one million or more who claim to be of First Nations descent. Of these million, 790,000 are Natives, 220,000 are Metis and 50,000 are Inuit.

Over 300,000 Aboriginals live on reserves throughout Canada.

The only true indigenous culture in Canada is that of the Aboriginal Peoples since all other Canadians were originally immigrants.

Here is a link to an excellent site with lots of information about Canada's First Nations

RELIGIONS
Majority of Canadians are Christians: 55 percent of Canadians are Roman Catholic, other religions in Canada include: Protestanism, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism.

LANGUAGE
Over 20.4 million Canadians have a mother tongue of English and 6.6 million have a mother tongue of French. 5.6 million Canadians have another mother tongue, but speek one or both official languages.
Chinese is Canada's third most common language.

NATURAL RESOURCES AND INDUSTRIAL CANADA
Principle Natural Resources are: fish, wildlife, natural gas, petroleum, gold, coal, copper, nickel, lead, molybdenum, silver, iron ore, potash, uranium, and zinc along with many timber-related industries and water and hydro-electric power.

Leading Industries: automobile manufacturing, pulp and paper, iron, steel work, machinery and equipment manufacturing, mining, extraction of fossil fuels, forestry and agriculture.

Leading exports are: automobiles, other vehicles and parts, machinery and equipment, high technology products, oil, natural gas, metals and forestry and farm products, including large wheat exports.

Imports are: machinery and industrial equipment, communications and electronic equipment, vehicles and automobile parts, industrial materials (ie: metal ores, iron, steel, precious metals, chemicals, plastics, cotton, wool and other textiles) along with manufactured products and food.

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